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Thoughts on Damage Formula
In order to make the game interesting I will be using some formulas to determine damage calculation for all types of damage. Without outside interference, the most amount of damage which can be mitigated from an attack is 75%, meaning that an attack should always do damage as long as it hits, unless there are other factors which influence the damage.

For physical damage, a few different elements are used in order to determine how much damage someone takes when they are hit. The attacking character has both an "Attack" value and a "Damage" value for their attack which are based on different factors.

Attack: Weapon Attack + Dexterity + Distance Bonus / Penalty

Damage: Weapon Damage + Strength + Weapon Stat

Every weapon in the game has an attack stat and a damage stat. They also have a damage type, which will be a stat. Different weapons have a different stat which they are influenced by for damage.

Here are three different weapons to use as examples:

Long Sword - Weapon Attack: 15 - Weapon Damage: 12 - Damage Type: Strength
Short Sword - Weapon Attack: 10 - Weapon Damage: 12 - Damage Type: Dexterity
Knife - Weapon Attack: 10 - Weapon Damage: 8 - Damage Type: Agility

Attack is used to determine how much of the damage bypasses your opponent's armor. This is done proportional to your opponent's defense as well as any temporary bonuses they may be receiving. At no defense, the damage will be dealt entirely while having defense equal to or higher than the attack stat will mitigate 75% of the damage being dealt. This is proportionate. If the target's defense is half the attacker's attack stat, they will mitigate 37.5% of the damage.

Ranged weapons differ slightly in that they generally do less damage, but do not suffer a distance penalty.

The distance penalty is based on the row the attacker is in and the row the defender is in. If both are in the front row in combat, then there is a bonus of 15%. If either of them are in the back row. there is no bonus. If both are in the back row, then there is a 15% penalty. This means front-row fighters do more damage, but they also take more damage. Ranged weapons are not subject to this, as neither is magical attacks that are not physical in nature.

Weapons can deal multiple types of damage if they are enchanted, or if the user has used a skill or spell that gives them elemental damage. Elemental damage that is physical in nature is subject to those penalties when taking into consideration damage from resistance.

Magical spells and ranged weapons are always assumed to do the same damage regardless of distance.

Elemental damage is subject to the same mitigation limit: 75%. It uses the same formula, replacing defense with resistance for that element.

In essence, attacks should always do damage unless they miss, or there is a special ability being used to increase the mitigation limit such as a rare armor that increases the limit or an ability to makes the target immune to a certain type of damage.
Thinking back on the current plan, I am wondering if there would be a better way to determine damage which would give the player a lot more customization in how they approach their character, depending on the class. It will be important to provide multiple different ways to build a character that work well for the sake of variety. Having players taking different approaches is beneficial since later on in the game it can become important for players to team up and overcome certain challenges.

While I am thinking about somewhat simplifying the calculation system, I at least like how damage mitigation is being determine. The chance for an attack missing needs to still be determined as I am not entirely sure how I want to approach that. I could make all melee weapons use the Strength stat for determining damage and Dexterity for determining how much of that damage the enemy takes. Either that, or I could tie mitigation specifically against damage, but I don't think that would be a smart move. There are a number of ways I could approach this; just need to make sure it is simple enough that people get the idea of it when playing the game, but with enough depth that it actually makes players think about their stats and gear as they work on their character.

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